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ERIC Number: ED024922
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1968
Pages: 22
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Speculations on Performance Models.
Fromkin, Victoria
Journal of Linguistics, v4 n1 p47-68 1968
According to the author, competence and performance and their interrelationships are the concern of linguistics. Performance models must: (1) be based on physical data of speech; (2) describe the phenomena under investigation; (3) predict events which are confirmed by experiment; (4) suggest causal relationships by identifying necessary and sufficient elements; (5) be consistent; (6) be formulated so that they can be proven incorrect. Katz' performance model, encoding sentences as units, is inadequate since actual speech is at least half in phrases of three words or less. Morphemes cannot be hypothesized as encoding units, as the number is too large for processing. Liberman's model, providing for overlapping of neuromuscular instructions to produce output units of about syllabic size is shown to disagree with the author's electromyographic data for different sequences of the same phonemes. But the work of Kozhevnikov, Ladefoged, Fry, and others, supports the hypothesis that encoding units are minimally a combination of phonemic segments. Evidence from experiments suggesting alternative models for speech encoding start with messages in syllabic or phonemic code and proceed via phonological rules to sequences of allophones for which motor commands are issued to the vocal tract. Too little is known to assume the correctness of these models, and further research is needed to test these and to develop more adequate performance models. (MK)
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