ERIC Number: ED023231
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1968-Jan
Reference Count: 0
Coaching and Teaching in Retardates: The Raven Matrices as a Learning Situation. Final Report.
Wortman, Richard A.
In order to determine the differential ability of mildly retarded school children to profit from coaching on non-verbal, non-academic reasoning problems and to study their problem solving and conceptual behavior, the Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices Test was given to 72 educable students (IQ 55 to 80) in socioeconomically homogeneous suburban slow learner classes (age 6 to 19). Control groups included 36 noncoached subjects and 21 coached and 19 noncoached normals (IQ 95 to 105). Encouragement was given during three test sessions after a coaching session on similar problems; controls were exposed to practice materials without coaching. Interaction of coaching with mental age helped to produce gains in the experimental group, who gained more and faster than the noncoached, with the first gain being the greatest. Significant gains (p=.05) were recorded for age groups 8 to 9, 12 to 13, and 14 to 15, and were on coaching for the designs where the strong lines were oblique. The conclusion was that mild retardates think like normals but are unable to keep pace after age 12 to 13, particularly in analogical reasoning (corresponding with Piagetian distinctions between concrete and formal thought operations, appearing at age 12). Nongainers had significantly greater physical, emotional, and cultural pathology (p=.05) than gainers. (Author/SN)
Descriptors: Abstract Reasoning, Cognitive Processes, Cognitive Tests, Environmental Influences, Exceptional Child Research, Group Norms, Mental Retardation, Mild Mental Retardation, Nonverbal Ability, Nonverbal Learning, Nonverbal Tests, Problem Solving, Socioeconomic Background, Suburban Youth, Test Results, Testing, Tests
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Bureau of Research.
Authoring Institution: Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH.