ERIC Number: ED021221
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1968-Feb-1
Reference Count: 0
On the Necessity of Distinguishing Between Speaking and Listening.
The similarity between the antecedents of listening and the consequences of speaking have long led theorists to believe in their intimate and even natural relationship. A tendency to conflate the two processes is found in articles on speech communication, automatic speech recognition, foreign language learning, and child language. Once this scattered literature is assembled and organized, it becomes clear that the present emphasis is on conflation whereas the evidence in each of the four areas favors a more balanced view. Properties of phoneme perception, for example, are often explained in terms of phoneme production, whereas these properties seem to recur in other kinds of perception, unrelated to articulation. At the suprasegmental level, the view that the listener refers what he hears to how he would say it is opposed by the different dynamic characteristics of speaking and listening, which are evident whenever a speaker adjusts his level to match a numerical or acoustic criterion, or to compensate for changes in sidetone, or to maintain intelligibility despite increasing noise. When the relations between speaking and listening are altered by pathology, case studies find further evidence for their relative independence in the normal individual. (Author/JD)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Bureau of Research.
Authoring Institution: Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Center for Research on Language and Language Behavior.
Note: Report included in Studies in Language and Language Behavior, Progress Report No. VI.