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Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; DeBoer, George E. – Grantee Submission, 2018
This study tests a hypothesized learning progression for the concept of energy. It looks at 14 specific ideas under the categories of (i) Energy Forms and Transformations; (ii) Energy Transfer; (iii) Energy Dissipation and Degradation; and (iv) Energy Conservation. It then examines students' growth of understanding within each of these ideas at…
Descriptors: Energy, Science Instruction, Concept Formation, Energy Conservation
National Assessment Governing Board, 2012
Since 1973, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has gathered information about student achievement in mathematics. Results of these periodic assessments, produced in print and web-based formats, provide valuable information to a wide variety of audiences. They inform citizens about the nature of students' comprehension of the…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Mathematics Achievement, National Competency Tests, Grade 4