The causes and manifestations of gender inequalities in education in Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe and policy options for redressing them were examined through a review of literature on the causes, nature, and extent of gender disparities in education in the study region and information on efforts to eliminate gender inequality. Special attention was paid to the following: manifestations of gender inequality (educational expenditure patterns, enrollments, performance/attainment, literacy); factors shaping gender inequalities (economic constraints; girls' labor contributions; family, community, and social class; school-based factors); policy options (expanding educational provision, types of school provision and organization, school inputs, community involvement/awareness, improving girls' health and nutrition, recruiting more female teachers, reducing direct and indirect costs); priorities in adult education and literacy; and government and aid donor interventions at the country, regional, and continent levels. It was concluded that, despite wide acceptance by most governments and donors in Sub-Saharan Africa of the considerable private and social benefits of girls' education, the political will to promote educational programs for girls and women appears to be lacking. Appropriate government- and donor-supported nonformal education for women was deemed essential. (Contains 81 references and project terms of reference.) (MN)
Africa (Sub Sahara); Malawi; Zambia; Zimbabwe
1 - Available on microfiche
Overseas Development Administration, London (England).