Noting that research and theory building in the area of listening have evolved from a variety of disciplines, this paper examines the contributions to listening theory made by humanistic psychology. The paper first offers an overview of humanistic psychology, examining some of the basic assumptions and postulates that serve as a foundation for "Third Force" psychology, an orientation emphasizing meaning and value in human life. It then discusses selected concepts that have been incorporated into listening theory, such as emphatic listening, mutual engagement, feedback, attending behaviors, and nonvaluative listening. The paper also presents an analysis of potential areas of further contributions for listening studies that have gone untapped or been given only cursory attention, including symbolization of experience, skill training, response studies, and perceived listening. The paper concludes with a call to scholars, theorists, and researchers to tap the potentially rich contributions of not only humanistic psychology, but also many other disciplines that relate directly and indirectly to the field of listening. (FL)
Paper presented at the Meeting of the International Listening Association Convention (San Diego, CA, March 13-16, 1986).