ERIC Number: EJ684131
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005
Reference Count: 16
Does Media Affect Learning: Where Are We Now?
Hastings, Nancy B.; Tracey, Monica W.
TechTrends Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, v49 n2 p28-30 2005
In 1983, Clark declared that instructional methods determine how effective a piece of instruction is and that media?s only influence is on cost and distribution. His argument (Clark, 1983) was that "media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in our nutrition" (p. 445). In 1991 and again in 1994, Kozma challenged Clark's position, contending that the unique attributes of certain media can affect both learning and motivation. His argument (Kozma, 1994) was that "if there is no relationship between media and learning it may be because we have not yet made one" (p. 7). Thus began the great media effects debate. A careful review of the arguments and counter arguments presented by Clark (1983; 1994) and Kozma (1991; 1994), responses published in the past 20 years (Jonassen, Campbell presented by Clark (1983; 1994) and Kozma (1991; 1994), & Davidson, 1994; Morrison, 1994; Reiser, 1994; Shrock, 1994) and existing instructional design literature (Morrison, Ross & Kemp, 2001; Reiser & Dick, 1996; Smith & Ragan, 1999) indicates there is, and always has been, significantly more agreement on this subject than the debate would indicate.
Descriptors: Teaching Methods, Educational Technology, Computer Uses in Education, Educational Media
Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 1800 N. Stonelake Dr., Suite 2, Bloomington, IN, 47404. Tel: 877-677-2328 (Toll Free); Fax: 812-335-7675.
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A