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50 Years of ERIC
50 Years of ERIC
The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) is celebrating its 50th Birthday! First opened on May 15th, 1964 ERIC continues the long tradition of ongoing innovation and enhancement.

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ERIC Number: ED436574
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1999-Nov
Pages: 16
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
Measuring Resilience.
O'Neal, Marcia R.
Locating and selecting an instrument that measures resilience is no simple task. This document provides information about several measures of resilience or hardiness that have been used in recent years. The discussion of each measure includes information about its origins, a description of the measure and its uses, and a discussion of the psychometric properties of the measure. The following are described: (1) Personal Views Survey III (Hardiness Institute, 1985); (2) Cognitive Hardiness Scale (K. Nowack 1989); (3) Psychological Hardiness Scale (S. Younkin and N. Betz, 1996); (4) Resilience Scale (G. Wagnild and H. Young, 1993); (5) Resiliency Scale (C. Jew, K. Green, and J. Kroger, 1999); (6) Personal Resilience Questionnaire and Organizational Resilience Questionnaire (D. Conner, 1993); and (7) Family Hardiness Index (H. McCubbin, A. Thompson, and M. McCubbin, 1996). (Contains 24 references.) (SLD)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Hardiness
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-S