ERIC Number: ED414677
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1997-Aug
Reference Count: N/A
Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Total Communication. ERIC Digest #559.
Hawkins, Larry; Brawner, Judy
This digest uses a question-and-answer format to address issues that parents should consider when thinking about the total communication (TC) approach for a child who is deaf or hard of hearing. Total communication is explained as the use of any/all modes of communication (manual, oral, auditory, and written) depending on the needs of the child. Use of TC by hearing parents and teachers usually involves combining speaking and signing. Benefits of the TC approach are noted, such as its ability to open all avenues and modes of communication for the deaf child and its demonstrated effectiveness in fostering the child's psychosocial, linguistic, and academic development. Limitations of TC include poor results when inadequately implemented, problems arising from the inherent differences between spoken and visual communication, and difficulties in individualization. Parents are provided with a list of questions to ask before choosing the total communication option. (Contains 10 references.) (DB)
Descriptors: Communication Skills, Communication (Thought Transfer), Deafness, Decision Making, Elementary Secondary Education, Interpersonal Communication, Manual Communication, Partial Hearing, Speech Communication, Total Communication
ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, Council for Exceptional Children, 1920 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1589; toll-free telephone: 800-328-0272.
Publication Type: ERIC Publications; ERIC Digests in Full Text; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Parents; Practitioners; Teachers
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, Reston, VA.
Identifiers: ERIC Digests