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50 Years of ERIC
50 Years of ERIC
The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) is celebrating its 50th Birthday! First opened on May 15th, 1964 ERIC continues the long tradition of ongoing innovation and enhancement.

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ERIC Number: ED407125
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1996-Jun
Pages: 20
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Human Development Theories: A Comparison of Classic Human Development Theorists and the Implications for a Model of Developmental Social Interaction.
Ollhoff, Jim
This paper explores several theories of human development, with particular attention to the development of social interaction. Part 1 compares and contrasts major developmental theories, including those of Freud, Erikson, Piaget, Kohlberg, Kegan, Fowler, and Selman. From birth to 1 year, infants are laying the foundation that will guide their later social interactions. Between years 2 and 5 the beginnings of autonomy and the dominance of egocentrism can be observed. Children ages 6 to 12 show concrete thinking, the emergence of the self-concept, the freedom from impulses, and the need to be successful. Youth, age 13 and older, show many precursors of adult attitudes and behaviors, with identity formation as a major issue, the possibility of abstract thought, and the beliefs of the community as a source of strength. Part 2 applies those theories to the expanding understanding of friendship, emphasizing the friendships of school-age children. Self-acceptance plays a crucial role in social interaction development. In Stage 1 of friendships, birth to 2 years, children play in each other's presence rather than with each other. Stage 2, ages 2 to 5, involves quickly changing friendships, characterized by creativity, joint fantasy, and shared imagination. Stage 3, ages 6 to 12, entails the emergence of reciprocity, shared activities, increasing peer influence, and the separation of self-perception from social status. Stage 4, ages 13 and following, is characterized by the recognition that friends have rights and relationships that are independent of oneself, increasing stability of self-esteem, and true moral thinking. (Contains 14 references.) (KDFB)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Developmental Theory; Erikson (Erik); Fowler (James); Freud (Sigmund); Kohlberg (Lawrence); Piaget (Jean); Selman (Robert)