ERIC Number: ED404291
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1992
Reference Count: N/A
Constructive Feedback: A Key to Successful Teaching and Learning.
Ovando, Martha N.
Feedback has emerged in the literature as a means to facilitate both the learning proccess and teaching performance. The context of constructive, systematic feedback includes evaluation as an important element in the process of decision making for teaching. Teaching and learning function as a whole to achieve outcomes from which specific information is collected. Information for students comes from sources such as their performance on tests, assignments, and projects, and in class during instruction. The focus of feedback for learning should address at least two dimensions: content mastery, and tools or skills for learning. The feedback process for learning involves at least eight steps that include expectations, criteria, student progress, students' accomplishments and strengths, areas needing further study or practice, recognition of students' efforts, suggestions about learning activities, and encouragement. Sources of feedback for teaching, which should be gathered on an ongoing basis, are students, peers, principals, and parents. Actions to facilitate feedback for teaching involve: setting a climate of trust; clarifying expectations; gathering significant information; reviewing and acknowledging each comment; adjusting teaching as needed; and evaluating effectiveness of modifications. Constructive feedback is relevant, immediate, factual, helpful, confidential, respectful, tailored, and encouraging. Exhibits provide two diagrams: a decision-making model for teaching and learning, and a systematic feedback process. (LL)
Descriptors: Affective Objectives, Decision Making, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Utilization, Feedback, Learning Processes, Performance Factors, Positive Reinforcement, Student Attitudes, Student Improvement, Teacher Attitudes, Teacher Improvement, Teacher Student Relationship, Teaching Skills
Publication Type: Guides - Non-Classroom
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Feedback Systems Analysis