ERIC Number: ED393634
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1996
Reference Count: N/A
Education in Mexico: Historical and Contemporary Educational Systems.
Andrade de Herrara, Victoria
This chapter traces the development of education in Mexico and describes recent reforms and current organization of the Mexican educational system. During the colonial period, Catholic religious orders created numerous educational institutions and established the first university (1551). Following independence, education was taken over by the Mexican government (1833), but educational development was disrupted by subsequent struggles between Conservatives and Liberals, war with the United States, and invasion by France. Following expulsion of the French (1867), Benito Juarez' government established the nonreligious, free, and obligatory aspects of education. During the era of Porfirio Diaz (1876-1910), notable ministers of education expanded primary and secondary schooling, supported women's education and higher education, established dozens of normal schools, and effected progressive federalization of instruction. After the Revolution (1910), increased attention was given to illiteracy, rural education, and the education and social integration of indigenous peoples. The present structure of the Mexican educational system is based on: (1) Articles 30 and 31 of the Constitution; (2) the National Agreement for the Modernization of Basic Education, 1992, a massive reform that decentralized the system, restructured and modernized curricula and educational practices, and increased teacher salaries and support for professional development; and (3) the General Law of Education, 1993. Detailed descriptions are provided for each level of education: initial education for children aged 45 days to 3 years and their mothers; preschool education, including kindergarten; primary education (grades 1-6); secondary education (grades 7-9); media superior (preparatory) education (2-3 years); higher education, technological education, and postgraduate study in public and private universities and technological institutes. Teacher education and adult education in literacy and job skills are also described. Contains 26 references. (SV)
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Reports - Descriptive; Translations
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Translated by Judith LeBlanc Flores. Chapter 3 in: Children of La Frontera: Binational Efforts To Serve Mexican Migrant and Immigrant Students; see RC 020 526.