ERIC Number: ED390856
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1995-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
Portraits in Black and White: A Micro and Macro View of Southern Teachers Before and After the Civil War. Pre-Conference Draft.
Huntzinger, Victoria-Maria MacDonald
This paper examines the origins of the entrance of black and white Southern women into the teaching profession after the Civil War focusing on their social, familial, and racial origins; marital and childbearing status; educational preparation; and how their lives converged or diverged due to the positions they occupied in their communities as members of a racially divided society. The paper cites two types of data: a random sample of teachers from the federal census of 1860, 1880, 1900, and 1910, and a wide variety of qualitative documents including diaries, letters, reminiscences, school reports, newspapers, and contemporary articles. Section 1 reviews the social, economic, and political changes that occurred between 1860 and 1910. Section 2 discusses Reconstruction and how a native Southern teaching force arose during this period. Section 3 explores whether teaching constituted downward mobility or upward opportunity for white women and describes how some teachers came from the "upper" classes and others from the "middling ranks." Section 4 considers black women and their entrance into teaching after the Civil War noting the presence of a high number of women of mixed racial background, and the importance of black teachers' commitment to racial uplift. Section 5 reflects on the findings' implications for Southern educational history. (Contains 52 references.) (JB)
Descriptors: Blacks, Census Figures, Civil War (United States), Educational History, Elementary Secondary Education, Females, Qualitative Research, Racial Attitudes, Racial Differences, Racial Relations, Reconstruction Era, Regional Attitudes, Teacher Characteristics, Teacher Education, United States History, Whites
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Historical Materials
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: United States (South)
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-22, 1995).