ERIC Number: ED369111
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1993-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
Impacts of Cross-Cultural Mass Media in Iceland, Northern Minnesota, and Francophone Canada in Retrospect.
Payne, David E.
Comparison of data gathered in the late 1970s to data gathered in the early 1990s indicates that while communication researchers remain convinced that effects of intercultural mass media exist, they also acknowledge that no clear, useful theoretical framework exists. Data were analyzed, compared, and reported in the late 1970s from three sites--Iceland, northern Minnesota, and Quebec. Data were gathered concerning television viewing habits, source of television broadcasts (from Canada, the United States, Iceland), or no television at all and the perceived effects of television viewing. Comparison of these studies indicated that: (1) even using the same measures, different cultural settings resulted in different outcomes; (2) the effects of media, interpersonal, and sociolinguistic variables were not uniform for different categories of dependent variables; and (3) changes in attitudes, agendas, and information levels had complex causes with many contributing factors. Comparisons of these studies to those done in the early 1990s indicated that not much had changed. Both sets of studies have the same four problems: the findings across settings were not consistent; the theoretical frameworks were not useful in explaining the inconsistencies; obtaining sufficient control over independent and extraneous forces was difficult; and the strength of the effect was small. Researchers should avoid dogmatic over-generalization of findings in the absence of a suitable theory. (Contains 24 references.) (RS)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Iceland; Minnesota; Quebec
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association (79th, Miami Beach, FL, November 18-21, 1993).