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**ERIC Number:**ED367538

**Record Type:**RIE

**Publication Date:**1993-Apr

**Pages:**18

**Abstractor:**N/A

**Reference Count:**N/A

**ISBN:**N/A

**ISSN:**N/A

Integrating Mathematics with Ninth Grade Physical Science: The Proportionality Link.

Fleener, M. Jayne; And Others

Higher order cognitive development and success in the study of high school mathematics and science require an understanding of rational number concepts and facility with proportional reasoning and computation. Proportional reasoning is an essential schema for developing formal operational thought. This study involving 16 ninth-grade students was conducted to investigate the following questions: (1) Does knowing a standard algorithm for solving proportion problems interfere with the development of proportional reasoning? (2) Are better mathematics students more flexible or intuitive than weaker students in applying proportional reasoning strategies to solve problems? and (3) What is the relationship between a student's general level of reasoning ability (concrete, transitional, or formal) and the strategies used for solving proportional reasoning tasks? Students engaged in proportional reasoning tasks and computational proportional problem solving in their science classes made a general positive gain in Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning scores, although gains for concrete learners were mixed. Explicit teaching of the concept of ratios and student engagement in exploratory studies of the relationships between and among ratios provoked development of proportional reasoning for average students. Students can benefit from experiences from which the cross-multiply-and-divide algorithm can be derived. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/MDH)

Descriptors: Abstract Reasoning, Algorithms, Cognitive Development, Formal Operations, Grade 9, High School Students, High Schools, Interdisciplinary Approach, Learning Processes, Learning Strategies, Mathematics Instruction, Models, Physical Sciences, Problem Solving, Ratios (Mathematics), Science Activities, Science Experiments, Science Instruction

**Publication Type:**Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers

**Education Level:**N/A

**Audience:**N/A

**Language:**English

**Sponsor:**N/A

**Authoring Institution:**N/A

**Identifiers:**Higher Order Learning; Lawson Test of Formal Reasoning; Learning Cycle Teaching Method; Mathematical Thinking; Mathematics Education Research; Proportional Reasoning

**Note:**Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Atlanta, GA, April 1993).