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ERIC Number: ED365568
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1993-May-8
Pages: 51
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
A Critical Analysis of Research on the Overjustification Effect.
Berkay, Paul James
This document examined studies of the overjustification effect. Many studies examining the phenomenon were conducted during the 1970s; findings appeared to be accepted without qualification. It is unclear whether researchers conducted the studies with the proper methodologies and interpreted results correctly. Such factors included the type of reward, expectancy of reward, level of performance demand, and type of feedback. Any study of the overjustification effect should ensure that: (1) claims are properly drawn from data; (2) baseline levels do not differ significantly among treatment groups; (3) valid measures are used for intrinsic interest; (4) results are interpreted properly; (5) only accepted, conventional p values are used; and (6) if claims of behavioral effects of extrinsic rewards are to be made, measures of observed behaviors are used. An analysis of nine such experiments showed that the experiments employed poor methodology and weak or faulty claims. Few studies contained proper claims based on data analysis in both the results and discussion sections. Five studies used unconventional p values. Overall, the articles were not up to the standards of publication in a professional journal. Many qualifications examined in most of the articles are still open to question and await examination in studies with appropriate methodology and design. A reference list identifies the nine studies analyzed; an appendix presents a checklist used in evaluating the studies. (SG)
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Researchers
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Overjustification