ERIC Number: ED365180
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1993-Nov-4
Reference Count: N/A
Improving Women's Access to Higher Education: A Review of World Bank Project Experience. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.
Dundar, Halil; Haworth, Jennifer
This working paper reviews World Bank project experience in gender issues within higher education over the last two decades. The study's objectives were to: (1) assess the attention given by the Bank has given to gender issues in postsecondary education; (2) examine policies to increase women's access to postsecondary education; and (3) identifying promising approaches to reducing the gender gap in higher education. Two major conclusions are reported: First, the most essential factor for successful intervention is a strong demand for educated women in the labor market combined with a high private demand for higher education by women (and their parents) and, second, the link between programs offered and labor market demands is critical. Additionally, projects with only a single intervention were successful only in societies where the formal labor market is growing and there are few social constraints or qualifications to inhibit women's participation. Projects with single interventions were less likely to succeed in the presence of such pervasive social factors as low secondary enrollment rates for women, high direct costs for female education, and heavy cultural restrictions in the labor market. Recent Bank projects have been substantially more likely to address gender inequities and provide multiple, interrelated interventions. Appendices detail activities, results, and constraints of the Bank's higher education projects. (Contains 10 references.) (GLR)
Descriptors: Academic Aspiration, Access to Education, Administrative Policy, Comparative Analysis, Cultural Influences, Educational Opportunities, Enrollment Influences, Equal Education, Females, Financial Support, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, International Programs, Labor Market, Nondiscriminatory Education, Program Evaluation, Sex Fairness
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.
Identifiers: ASHE Annual Meeting; World Bank
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education (18th, Pittsburgh, PA, November 4-10, 1993).