ERIC Number: ED364320
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1993-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
The Relationship of Gender, Ethnicity, and Home Language to Age of School Entry, Kindergarten Retention and Social Promotion.
Cosden, Merith; And Others
Over the past 10 years, kindergarten classes have escalated their academic demands in order to prepare children to begin first grade. In tandem with curricular changes, many parents have elected to "hold out" their children from first grade for an additional year, and increasingly, schools are using kindergarten retention in response to early school failure. A study assessed the impact of student characteristics on holding out and retention or promotion practices. Data on all 1,089 kindergarten students in one South Central California school district were analyzed, including student age, gender, ethnicity, home language, age of entry, and decisions regarding grade retention, promotion, and advancement. Approximately 68% of the students were Latino, and 32% Anglo. Study findings included the following results: (1) on average, boys started school at 67.5 months and girls at 66.7 months; (2) neither ethnicity nor home language influenced age of school entry; (3) over 10% of the children had been held out of school an extra year by their parents, 4.2% had been previously retained, 5% were recommended for retention the following year, and 19.9% were advanced to first grade with concerns about their promotion; (4) children in the youngest part of their cohort were more likely than older children to be held out, retained, or recommended for retention; and (5) English-speaking Latino students were more likely to be recommended for retention than Spanish-speaking Latinos, although the reasons for this particular pattern were unclear. (Contains 28 references.) (AC)
Descriptors: Academic Failure, Age Grade Placement, English (Second Language), Grade Repetition, Kindergarten, Kindergarten Children, Minority Groups, Preschool Children, Preschool Education, Primary Education, School Entrance Age, School Readiness, Sex Differences, Social Promotion, Student Characteristics
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: California (South); Latinos
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Atlanta, GA, April 12-16, 1993).