ERIC Number: ED351159
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991
Reference Count: N/A
Organizing for Self-Determination: Federal and Tribal Bureaucracies in an Era of Social and Policy Change.
Stuart, Paul H.
During the 1970s, self-determination was institutionalized as official U.S. Indian policy through federal legislation and administrative guidelines. The seeds of this policy date to the Indian New Deal in the 1920s when John Collier's Indian reform movement sought to lessen the autocratic power of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) by institution "indirect administration" through native political structures under the supervision of colonial administrators. The Indian Reorganization Act provided the basis for tribal government, but resulted in standardization of tribal governments and centralization of BIA power. After World War II, the federal government tried to force Indian assimilation by terminating aspects of the special federal-Indian relationship and relocating many reservation residents to urban areas. Heightened Indian consciousness, new intertribal organizational structures, and increased availability of legal representation to tribes during the termination period provided the basis for an Indian movement for self-determination during the 1960s and 1970s. Despite landmark legislation and explicit federal recognition of the intergovernmental nature of the federal-Indian relationship, self-determination policy remains limited by a lack of tribal control over programs and appropriations. Particularly problematic is the organizational structure of the BIA and other agencies responsible for implementing Indian policy. It seems likely that current and proposed public policy will fall short of achieving full self-determination for American Indians. (SV)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Bureau of Indian Affairs; Organizational History; Tribal Government
Note: In: Green, Donald E., Ed. and Tonnesen, Thomas V., Ed. American Indians: Social Justice and Public Policy, 1991; see RC 018 834.