ERIC Number: ED350202
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991
Reference Count: N/A
Time and Opportunity To Learn in Pakistan's Schools.
This paper challenges the current conventional policy view of time as a critical resource for learning. After reviewing literature on the subject, the paper analyzes the contribution of instructional time to learning using data from primary schools in Pakistan. The principal finding reported in this paper is that the amount of contact time between teachers and students in Pakistan appears to have no influence on student achievement as measured in mathematics and science tests. The discussion of this finding points to the need of having solid evidence looking at the particular context of each educational system and to the risks implicit in recommending policies of universal validity on the basis of limited research evidence. The prevalent policy view on instructional time would seem to assume that time of contact between teachers and students is a process of constant quality and infinite elasticity. This paper suggests that quality of teacher-student interactions is probably more relevant than the total amount of time allocated to instruction. (DB)
Descriptors: Developing Nations, Educational Change, Educational Needs, Educational Objectives, Educational Policy, Educational Quality, Educational Research, Elementary Schools, Foreign Countries, Instructional Effectiveness, Intermediate Grades, School Effectiveness, Teacher Effectiveness, Teacher Student Relationship, Time Factors (Learning)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Northeast Universities Development Consortium Conference (Cambridge, MA, October 4-5, 1991).