ERIC Number: ED348204
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1992-Aug
Reference Count: 0
Lasting Lessons: A Teacher's Guide to Reflecting on Experience.
Knapp, Clifford E.
An instructional activity is educational only when students understand its meaning and apply their understanding to future situations. Outdoor educators seek to improve teaching and learning through direct experience but, if such experiences are to be meaningful and applied to life situations, teachers must help students learn from carefully planned and guided reflection sessions. This guidebook deals with the theory and practice of reflecting upon experiences, using examples from outdoor education. Chapter 1 discusses common uses of reflection in everyday life; findings of cognitive research related to reflection and experiential learning; six scenarios illustrating classroom uses of reflection; definitions of reflection, knowing, thinking, and learning; types of knowledge and the relationships among them; and contributions of Socrates, Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky on the educational value of reflection in a group setting. Chapter 2 describes how to lead a reflection session, focusing on planning, teacher facilitation skills, educational objectives, and developing a supportive climate in a caring community of learners. Other chapters outline questioning strategies and techniques, describe alternate reflection activities, and list questions for teacher reflection on this guidebook. This booklet contains 53 references. Appendices list various types of reflective and evaluative questions, and 47 additional resources: organizations, networks, colleges, books, and bibliographies. (SV)
Descriptors: Classroom Environment, Classroom Techniques, Discussion (Teaching Technique), Educational Theories, Elementary Secondary Education, Experiential Learning, Learning Processes, Outdoor Education, Questioning Techniques, Student Experience, Teaching Methods, Thinking Skills, Transfer of Training
ERIC/CRESS, Appalachia Educational Laboratory, P.O. Box 1348, Charleston, WV 25325 ($10).
Publication Type: Guides - Classroom - Teacher; ERIC Publications
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV.
Identifiers: Reflection Process; Reflective Inquiry