ERIC Number: ED347184
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1992-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Stress and Performance Training: A Review of the Literature with Respect to Military Applications.
Backer, Patricia Ryaby; Orasanu, Judith M.
A previous review of the effects of stressors on military performance shows that different stressors have different effects, the effects of stress vary with the type of skill being measured, the presence of certain stressors leads to decrements in performance, and incident-related stress accompanying these stressors can further impair performance. In addition, significant variations exist in the effects of stress on different individuals. This paper summarizes some of the effects by stressor. Physical, environmental, psychological, and social factors of stressors are discussed. Three approaches to training people to perform under stressful conditions are described. The first approach involves focusing on the stress itself and assumes that if individuals can be taught to manage the stress, their performance will improve. The second approach assumes that stress is the inevitable result of exposure to stressors and that the focus should be on skill training. If individuals can achieve automaticity on certain tasks, stress will impair performance less. The third approach is the Cockpit Resource Management approach in which participants are taught effective interpersonal skills to deal with any potential stressor. Results show that these approaches can improve the performance of individuals and crews. However, most of the evaluative measures did not assess task performance, rather they assessed affective or physiological indicators of individual stress. There is a 167-item list of references. (SLD)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Cockpit Resource Management
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 20-24, 1992).