ERIC Number: ED344683
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
Reciprocal Teaching: A Review of Nineteen Experimental Studies.
Rosenshine, Barak; Meister, Carla
Nineteen studies of the use of reciprocal teaching to help students improve their comprehension of texts are reviewed. The studies are grouped according to the type of instructional approach used, the type of student involved, and the type of outcome measure used. Two main approaches are identified: (1) reciprocal teaching only, in which the instruction consists of models, prompts, and hints, and instruction occurs in dialogues between the teacher and student; and (2) explicit teaching before reciprocal teaching (ET/RT), in which there is extensive teacher-led instruction in cognitive strategies before dialogues begin. Results in the studies were usually more significant when ET/RT instruction was used than when reciprocal teaching only was used. Results were usually nonsignificant when below-average students were taught, but significant with all other students. Results were usually significant when experimenter-developed tests were used, but nonsignificant with standardized tests. Questions that emerged from analysis of the studies concerned the best cognitive strategies to teach; the best settings for teaching cognitive strategies; the best prompts and instructional procedures for teaching the strategies; the type of students for whom the teaching of the strategies is most effective; and the best outcome measures to use. Four tables provide results from the studies, and two tables list and categorize the studies. Contains 31 references. (LB)
Descriptors: Academic Ability, Academic Achievement, Adults, Children, Classroom Communication, Comparative Analysis, Dialogs (Language), Educational Strategies, Elementary Secondary Education, Instructional Design, Reading Instruction, Standardized Tests, Student Characteristics, Teacher Guidance, Teacher Made Tests, Teaching Methods
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Reciprocal Teaching
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (72nd, Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991).