ERIC Number: ED343940
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1992
Reference Count: N/A
Using Examinations To Improve Education: A Study in Fourteen African Countries. World Bank Technical Paper Number 165. Africa Technical Department Series.
Kellaghan, Thomas; Greaney, Vincent
A detailed description is presented of the types, functions, performance levels, governance, administration, and funding of public examinations in 14 Sub-Saharan African countries with different educational traditions, based on English, French, or other backgrounds. The countries are: (1) Kenya; (2) Lesotho; (3) Mauritius; (4) Swaziland; (5) Uganda; (6) Zambia; (7) Chad; (8) Guinea; (9) Madagascar; (10) Mauritania; (11) Rwanda; (12) Togo; (13) Cape Verde; and (14) Ethiopia. In virtually all of these countries, public examinations are offered at the end of primary (elementary) school, lower-secondary school, and upper-secondary school. Procedures for funding, constructing, administering, and scoring the examinations are discussed. Issues discussed include passing rates, the effects of examinations on teaching and grade repetition, the roles of assessment, implications of national policies, and other current international issues in education. Guidelines are offered for improving the quality of examinations and their uses. This synthesis report draws on a series of studies supported by the World Bank. Findings from the 14 studies confirm that public examinations may help raise academic standards, but can also cause many problems in an educational system. Nine tables present data from the studies. A 105-item list of references and three appendices with supplemental information are included. (SLD)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, African Studies, Developing Nations, Educational Assessment, Educational Finance, Educational Improvement, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries, Government Role, National Competency Tests, National Programs, Public Schools, Test Results, Test Use, Testing Problems, Testing Programs
Distribution Unit, Office of the Publisher, Department F, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (free).
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.
Identifiers: Africa (Sub Sahara); Francophone Africa; Testing Effects