ERIC Number: ED337661
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991
Reference Count: N/A
Limits to Change in Training Systems: The Case of Germany. Training Discussion Papers No. 85.
The German education and training system has been shaped by a variety of philosophical, pedagogical, economic, political, and societal ideas and events during its historical development. Its main features and trends can be traced back for at least a century; they have proven to be stable and resistant to major changes. The hierarchical structure of the present education system, based on three separate tracks, and the vocational training system, based on apprenticeship, can be traced back to the Middle Ages. Several attempts to integrate vocational and general education have failed. Instead, parallel school streams providing both general and vocational subjects have been established and expanded according to the needs of the economy or to political and social demand. Reform plans for the apprenticeship system have likewise been dropped in the face of threats to the social stability and the economic viability of the nation. Today, the public school system provides both general and vocational education in separate school systems. Initial training through apprenticeship is considered a legitimate type of training for young people, especially school leavers. Although the French and German vocational training systems followed similar patterns up to the mid-19th century, obvious turning points have led to differences between the two countries that have been maintained up to the present. (33 endnotes) (YLB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).