ERIC Number: ED337411
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991-Mar
Reference Count: 0
Education in a Declining Economy: The Case of Zambia: 1975-1985. EDI Development Policy Case Series. Analytical Case Studies Number 8.
Kelly, Michael J.
In recent years Zambia has experienced increasingly grave financial problems. The decline in the economy has affected all sectors, including education. The deterioration occurred at a time when the population was growing at a rapid rate. Hence the education sector has been subject to two opposing pressures: a fiscal pressure to curtail financial commitments and a demographic pressure to increase the provision of education. The outcome has been a virtual stagnation in resource allocation, a substantial increase in enrollments, and, in consequence, a reduction in unit expenditure. Nevertheless, public confidence in education as an instrument of development remained high. Even the most indigent people did not question the need to make substantial sacrifices so that the children could have a school education. Although not every problem was solved, the years 1980-1985 showed more determination, confidence, and maturity than the previous 5 years on the part of teachers, administrators, and the general public, who cooperated in what was in effect a massive rescue operation to expand and improve the provision of education. This report presents a portrait of Zambian education during the years 1975-85. There are 19 chapters: (1) The impact of economic decline of education; (2) The development of education in Zambia before 1975; (3) The decline of Zambia's economy; (4) Demography; (5) The financing of education, 1975 to 1985; (6) Financing education: some critical issues; (7) Official development assistance for education; (8) Nongovernmental resources for financing education; (9) Educational provision at the primary and secondary levels; (10) The quality of education; (11) Curriculum issues; (12) Evaluating educational performance; (13) The teacher during the years of economic difficulty; (14) The pupil in school and afterwards; (15) Educational supervision, planning, and decisionmaking; (16) Continuing education programs; (17) The University of Zambia during the years of economic difficulty; (18) The general level of education; and (19) The robustness of the education system. There are numerous tables of data throughout the report and an eight-page list references is included. (Author/DB)
Descriptors: Demography, Developing Nations, Economic Factors, Educational Administration, Educational Demand, Educational Development, Educational Economics, Educational Finance, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, International Education, Resource Allocation, Tables (Data)
Publications Sales Unit, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433.
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC. Economic Development Inst.