ERIC Number: ED336073
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991
Reference Count: N/A
Training for Reflective Expertise: A Four-Component Instructional Design Model for Complex Cognitive Skills.
van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; And Others
This paper presents a four-component instructional design model for the training of complex cognitive skills. In the analysis phase, each skill is broken down into a set of recurrent skills that remain highly consistent over various problem situations, and a set of non-recurrent skills that require variable performance over different situations. Components 1 and 2 relate to analyses that are conducted to describe the recurrent skills in terms of specific rules or procedures and the non-recurrent skills in terms of heuristics or systematic problem approaches. Components 3 and 4 relate to the knowledge analyses that are conducted to describe the facts and concepts that are prerequisite to perform recurrent skills or the complex schemata that are helpful to perform non-recurrent skills. In the design phase, instructional tactics are selected for each of the four components. Components 1 and 2 relate to the design of practice and the conditions leading to rule automation or schema acquisition. Components 3 and 4 relate to the design of information presentation. Finally, the composition of the training strategy is governed by selected instructional tactics, which pose constraints on the design of an interactive learning environment. The basic prediction of this model is that its application leads to "reflective expertise" and increased transfer performance, i.e., the ability to solve new problems on the basis of domain-specific procedures and heuristics. Applications of the model that support this prediction are discussed for the training of fault management, computer programming, and statistical analysis skills. (74 references) (Author/DB)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Interactive Teaching
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991).