ERIC Number: ED335642
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991-Mar
Reference Count: N/A
Planbox Escalation: A Method of Improving Students' Critical Reading Skills.
Knutson, Debra S.
Planbox escalation is a linguistic method of analyzing narrative arguments. This persuasive procedure consists of 12 strategies: (1) begin with information that all sides can agree on; (2) prepare to respond by rejecting outright, questioning, ignoring or replacing the audience's opinions; (3) make the subject as attractive as possible; (4) qualify statements instead of forcing the audience; (5) emphasize statements that the audience can agree on, but reject opposing arguments; (6) question the opponents understanding of the topic if they have points which are legitimate; (7) avoid pushing beliefs which the audience finds unacceptable, but also avoid committing to the opponents' beliefs; (8) make it clear that the views presented are the result of careful thought; (9) encourage a compromise, but make it seem as though the other side is desperate for the compromise; (10) avoid being too insistent until confident that the audience has been swayed; (11) use secondary sources to support opinions, even those that disagree--provided that their arguments are clearly flawed; and (12) make the "call to action" simple so that the audience does not think it will need to contribute a great deal of time, money, or energy. The passage from "Tom Sawyer" in which Tom persuades his friends to whitewash the fence for him, Plato's "Phaedrus," and M. Levin's "A Case for Torture" are good examples of planbox escalation. This method can help students analyze articles they may otherwise be unable to read critically. It can also guide them in their writing, helping them to refute opposing positions with more sophisticated arguments. (PRA)
Publication Type: Guides - Classroom - Teacher; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Argumentation Theory; Planbox Escalation
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (42nd, Boston, MA, March 21-23, 1991).