ERIC Number: ED334316
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991
Reference Count: 0
Americanization through Public Education of Japanese Americans in Hawaii: 1930-1941. The Effect of Extracurricular Activities on the Americanization Process.
Shoho, Alan R.
Using data from 60 oral testimonies, student handbooks, and yearbooks, this paper describes the Americanization of Japanese Americans in Hawaii through public school education between 1930 and 1941, delineating the roles that participation in student government, sports, clubs, assemblies, and home recreation played in the socialization process. Extracurricular activities rapidly expanded in American schools during the first part of the twentieth century, providing students with practice at adult-like enterprises and preparing them to become active participants in the community. Four factors reduced Japanese Americans' participation in extracurricular activities, however: work, lack of transportation, attending Japanese language school after regular school, and their small physical size. Nevertheless, Japanese Americans were well represented, for instance, within student body governments of Hawaii's public schools. These students were thus actively participating in a model of the democratic process. Except for basketball and football, Japanese Americans participated actively in interscholastic and intramural athletics, resulting in a strong bond with the American culture. Club participation was another source of socialization. The Japanese Students' Association even had a stated concern of socializing its members to the American culture. Japanese American students also participated in school assemblies, where school spirit was promoted and American norms reinforced. In the area of home recreation, the subjects report benefiting from the English section of the local Japanese newspaper, borrowed library materials, and radio shows. Taken as a whole, the influence of these activities subconsciously instilled American ideals into their recipients. A list of 94 notes is included. (CJS)
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3, 1991).