ERIC Number: ED333538
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
The Superintendent and School Improvement: Antecedents, Actions and Outcomes.
Jackson, Roberta Moehlman; Crawford, George J.
Employing multiple case study analysis methods, the attitudes and actions of superintendents in three school districts with improving basic skills test performance were compared with those of superintendents of three nonimproving districts to determine if patterns of difference existed. Contextual variations and superintendents' priorities were explored as antecedents to actions and outcomes. Four contextual variables were identified as potentially relevant to superintendent behavior, including superintendent and principal tenure, community climate, grade configuration and dispersion of attendance centers, and district financial condition. Superintendent's actions were classified under the nine control functions identified by Murphy and associates: supervision, selection, socialization, evaluation, rewards and sanctions, goals, resource allocation, monitoring, and behavior control. In improving districts, there was greater principal awareness of superintendents' goals and priorities; greater evidence of shared superintendent-principal control; a higher priority for teacher evaluation and/or supervision; and more attention paid to analyzing test results. Caution is needed in adopting a single set of practices at the district level to improve student outcomes. Comparisons of test and nontest indicators of student outcomes in the six districts illustrated the complexity and ambiguity of classifying districts as improving or nonimproving on the basis of multiple outcome or single indicators. (35 references) (Author/MLH)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991).