ERIC Number: ED332345
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991-Jan
Reference Count: N/A
Images of Leadership. NCEL Occasional Paper No. 7.
Bolman, Lee G.; Deal, Terrence E.
This document examines the orientations or "frames" that leaders use to guide their understanding of their work. Four distinct frames that characterize ways leaders think about and respond to everyday issues and problems are examined: (1) the structural frame; (2) the human resource frame; (3) the political frame; and (4) the symbolic frame. Leaders provided narratives about their experience and, using survey instruments, rated themselves and their colleagues on two dimensions of leadership for each of the four frames. Their responses suggest which frames leaders use; how well frames capture the administrators' thinking; how well the frames predict administrator effectiveness; and how gender relates to leadership orientation. Results show that the variables which predict effectiveness as a manager are different from those that predict effectiveness as a leader, and that leadership effectiveness is particularly associated with high scores on the symbolic dimensions, but is largely unrelated to the structural frame. Seven tables are included. (5 references) (CLA)
Descriptors: Administrator Attitudes, Administrator Characteristics, Administrator Effectiveness, Cognitive Style, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education, Interpretive Skills, Leaders, Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Styles, Orientation, Predictive Validity, School Administration, Sex Differences
Publication Sales, National Center for Educational Leadership, Harvard Graduate School of Education, 443 Gutman Library, 6 Appian Way, Cambridge, MA 02138 ($4.00).
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: National Center for Educational Leadership, Nashville, TN.
Identifiers: Educational Leadership