ERIC Number: ED332314
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991-Mar
Reference Count: N/A
Leading People or Managing Things: A Summary Paper of a Comparative Investigation of Leadership Development and Practices in Educational and Military (U.S. Army) Organizations.
Monahan, William G.; Smith, Edwin R.
Some important conclusions and recommendations may be drawn from comparing U.S. Army leadership processes to the state-of-the-art in educational administration: (1) army leadership development works in the ways intended; (2) leadership must be learned, not taught; and (3) everybody involved must truly participate. Site-based management makes no sense to army commanders; from squad to division, everybody must know how to lead his/her piece of the system and the accompanying prerogatives and responsibilities. Management is top-down in terms of operational authority and accountability, but is bottom-up in terms of effectiveness. There are also important contextual and institutional structure differences between the Army and educational administration. Progress toward a superintendency or through academic ranks is less defined than the Army's clearly explicit system of ranks and statuses, accompanied by systematic formal and continuous formal evaluations and specific education requirements to be earned internally and at traditional higher education institutions. The Army provides leadership lessons for educational administration: (1) both purpose and program must be well-defined; (2) leading is not managing; (3) leadership has to be shaped; (4) leadership's essence is trust, confidence, and will; and (5) leadership must be both practiced and assessed. An attached paper, "Military and Educational Leadership: A Comparative Investigation," explains these ideas more fully. (MLH)
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991).