ERIC Number: ED331011
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1990-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
Encoding & Decoding Effects in ESL and L1 Students.
A study investigated the encoding and decoding effects in English as a Second Language (ESL) and native English speaking (L1) students in Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada), by isolating the difficulties due to encoding and decoding in these students. The study examined specifically whether there are significant decoding effects based on comparisons between unaided recalls in reading and retelling, and whether there are significant encoding effects based on comparisons between compositions produced through independent writing and oral composing (i.e. dictation). The four "mode" tasks (reading, retelling, writing and oral composing) were administered to 30 each Cantonese, Vietnamese, Punjabi (L2) and native English speakers (L1) ages 9-13. Language competency rather than age was the critical attribute used in selecting the L2 students, who were chosen from ESL classrooms. While results indicated that reading was more difficult than retelling, and independent writing was more difficult than oral composing, only the decoding effects were found to be statistically significant when considering the dependent language variables of WORDS, T-UNITS, and CLAUSES. In addition, no significant differences among the language groups were found. The findings have a potential diagnostic application in first-and second-language instruction. (One table of data and one figure are included; 13 references are attached.) (PRA)
Descriptors: Decoding (Reading), Educational Research, Elementary Education, Encoding (Psychology), English (Second Language), Foreign Countries, Language Acquisition, Language Patterns, Language Processing, Reading Diagnosis, Reading Difficulties, Reading Writing Relationship, Story Telling, Writing Difficulties
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: British Columbia (Vancouver); English Speaking; Reading Speaking Relationship
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference (40th, Miami, FL, November 27-December 1, 1990).