ERIC Number: ED330431
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1990-Nov-16
Reference Count: N/A
Early Childhood Commercial Exhibit Controversies: 1890 and 1990.
Hewes, Dorothy W.
The controversy over the contrast between early childhood principles and the commercial exhibits at the 1990 annual meeting of the National Association for the Education of Young Children prompted a search for historical antecedents. Research disclosed that the first popular linking of Froebelian kindergarten curriculum and manufactured equipment was Milton Bradley's 1869 Manual for Self-Instruction and a Practical Guide for Kindergartners. Prang, Ernst Steiger, and other companies also published inexpensive books and pamphlets which showed how kindergarten materials should be used. These companies sold "authentic" Froebelian supplies and supplies that were "improved" for the American market. As early as 1879, some American educators were concerned about the corruption of educational principles by the interests of manufacturers and merchants. Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, educators and school supply companies introduced new products through exhibits at the annual meetings of the National Educational Association (NEA). In 1891, brand names first appeared in the NEA reports. Educators William and Eudora Hailmann supported the concept of developmental freedom and opposed dictated activities such as those prescribed in books published by Milton Bradley and E. Steiger. But William Hailmann and the Froebelian kindergarten had little direct influence on U.S. education after the mid-1980s. (RH)
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Business Role
Note: Paper presented at the National Association for the Education of Young Children History Seminar (Washington, DC, November 16, 1990).