ERIC Number: ED327901
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1990-Aug
Reference Count: N/A
Mass Communication Effects: A Weakness Theorem.
Carter, Richard F.
What mass communication effects are possible that have not yet occurred because no effort has been made to achieve them? Why has there been only limited success in mass communication efforts attempted already? For people to be communicatively affected, they have to be behaviorally affected. People are generally weak behaviorally, especially in the observing sector. Because communicating is an extension of observing, people are generally too weak to communicate effectively--in producing and/or making use of messages. Comprehension of weaknesses in communication permits better understanding of the limited effects so far achieved, provides better preparation for improving effectiveness, and makes more effects available for observation. Taking the "step" as the basic behavioral unit, the process can be viewed as a relationship between observing, the observed, and moving. Communicating is not well understood, and there is a lack of development in the observing capability. Quite a few observing capabilities other than the orientational and constructive modes can be useful in promoting communication: making comparisons; maximizing the utility of values; observing outcomes; etc. Occasionally a teacher can see where he/she has been effective in conveying this or that idea for students. Communicating is an effective extension of observing only when supported by adequate observing capability. To improve communicating, it is necessary to understand how observing must work if successful communicative "steps" are to be taken. (Twenty-two notes are attached.) (SG)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Communication Patterns; Message Distortion
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (73rd, Minneapolis, MN, August 1-4, 1990).