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50 Years of ERIC
50 Years of ERIC
The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) is celebrating its 50th Birthday! First opened on May 15th, 1964 ERIC continues the long tradition of ongoing innovation and enhancement.

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ERIC Number: ED284272
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1987
Pages: 3
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
Fostering Cognitive Development in College Students--The Perry and Toulmin Models. ERIC Digest.
Battaglini, Dennis J.; Schenkat, Randolph J.
Intended for college instructors interested in promoting and developing intellectual abilities in their students, this publication details the Perry and Toulmin models of cognitive development. The first section explains the Perry model of dualistic students, who are comfortable in a framework of absolute knowledge and unquestionable right and wrong answers, multiplistic students, who recognize multiple perspectives but are unable to evaluate and weigh them adequately, and relativistic students, who are comfortable questioning authority and see knowledge as relative to their own frames of reference. A second section suggests implications of this model for classroom instruction, followed by a section providing information on how to find out more about the Perry model. A fourth section looks at the Toulmin model of cognitive development, which is characterized by a six-step system of rational argumentation, and how the model may be applied in the classroom. A final section notes that relativistic students are, by definition, working within the Toulmin model, and suggests that academic study demands that students work on a relativistic level. (JC)
Publication Type: ERIC Publications; ERIC Digests in Full Text
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Language: English
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.
Identifiers: ERIC Digests; Perry Developmental Scheme; Toulmins Model