ERIC Number: ED284181
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1987-Jan
Reference Count: 0
Cognitive Apprenticeship: Teaching the Craft of Reading, Writing, and Mathematics. Technical Report No. 403.
Collins, Allan; And Others
Noting that skills and knowledge taught in schools have become abstracted from their uses in the world, this paper clarifies some of the implications for the nature of the knowledge that students acquire through a proposal for the retooling of apprenticeship methods for the teaching and learning of cognitive skills. The paper specifically proposes the development of a new cognitive apprenticeship to teach students the thinking and problem-solving skills involved in school subjects such as reading, writing, and mathematics. The first section of the paper, after discussing key shortcomings in current curricular and pedagogical practices, presents some of the structural features of traditional apprenticeship, detailing what would be required to adapt these characteristics to the teaching and learning of cognitive skills. The central section of the paper considers three recently developed pedagogical models that exemplify aspects of apprenticeship methods in teaching thinking and reasoning skills. The section notes that these methods--A. S. Palincsar and A. L. Brown's reciprocal reading teaching, M. Scardamalia and C. Bereiter's procedural facilitation of writing, and A. H. Schoenfeld's method for teaching mathematical problem solving--appear to develop successfully not only the cognitive, but also the metacognitive, skills required for true expertise. The final section organizes ideas on the purposes and characteristics of successful teaching into a general framework for the design of learning "environments," including the content being taught, pedagogical methods employed, sequencing of learning activities, and the sociology of learning--emphasizing how cognitive apprenticeship goes beyond the techniques of traditional apprenticeship. Tables of data are included, and references are appended. (Author/NKA)
Descriptors: Apprenticeships, Cognitive Processes, Educational Environment, Elementary Education, Learning Strategies, Learning Theories, Mathematics Instruction, Metacognition, Reading Instruction, Reading Research, Skill Development, Teaching Methods, Theory Practice Relationship, Writing Instruction, Writing Research
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA.; National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Illinois Univ., Urbana. Center for the Study of Reading.; Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA.
Identifiers: Cognitive Enhancement; Reciprocal Teaching