ERIC Number: ED284172
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1987-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Four Patterns of Word-Level Reading Difficulty in Dyslexic Children.
Manis, Franklin R.
Although evidence is accumulating that the major reading difficulty dyslexics experience involves decoding and recognizing printed words, it is not clear that all dyslexics read poorly for the same reasons. A study investigated dyslexic children between 7 and 14 years of age to see if their reading errors and patterns of performance would enable them to be classified into subgroups. Forty-nine dyslexic children in grades 2 to 8 completed reaction time tasks which tested visual matching, sound and category matching, and word recognition. As control, a group of 58 normal readers in grades 1 to 8 also completed the tasks. Results grouped the dyslexic children into four types of severe reading deficiency: (1) decoding, (2) lexical access, (3) both decoding and lexical access, and (4) visual processing. A second study tested whether the subgroups showed deficits on non-reading tasks that would relate systematically to their area of reading difficulty. Subjects were 46 dyslexics and a comparable group of non-dyslexics who attempted tasks in rhyming, category matching, sound deletion, nonsense word decoding, picture matching, and picture copying. Most dyslexics in all four subgroups had difficulty with decoding nonsense words and sound deletion tasks; no group had difficulty with picture naming; the decoding group was deficient in rhyming; the lexical deficit group was deficient in category matching; the multiple deficits group had trouble with rhyming and category matching; and the visual deficits had difficulty with picture copying. While the study suggests that it may be fruitful to subdivide dyslexics based on area of difficulty, the results also show that dyslexics have certain characteristics in common. Possibly, dyslexics do not stay statically in one category, but change through time from the combined group to exhibiting a single deficit. (SKC)
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Decoding (Reading), Dyslexia, Elementary Secondary Education, Grouping (Instructional Purposes), Objective Tests, Reaction Time, Reading Ability, Reading Difficulties, Reading Failure, Reading Processes, Reading Research, Timed Tests, Visual Learning, Word Recognition
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Lexical Access
Note: Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (Baltimore, MD, April 23-26, 1987).