ERIC Number: ED255624
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1985-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Race, Gender and Reciprocity Effects on Friendship Similarity during Early Adolescence.
Clark, M. L.; Ayers, Marla
One hundred and thirty-six 7th and 8th graders were studied in order to investigate the effects of race, gender, and reciprocity on friendship similarity and proximity in early adolescence. Six measures were administered to participants to obtain data on their friendship choices, friendship proximity, degree of friendship satisfaction and commitment, interpersonal attitudes, verbal intelligence, personality, physical attractiveness, sex, and race. On the basis of these data, subjects were categorized into dyads based on three variables: reciprocity or mutuality, sex, and race. Further analysis yielded the following major findings: Female friends were more similar than male friends and Black friends were more similar than White friends, regardless of reciprocity. The reciprocal dyads consisted of more same-sex, same-race, and female friends. Cross-race friendships occurred less frequently than same-race friendships and more frequently than cross-sex friendships, and appeared to be closer in structure to White than Black friendships. And finally, cross-race friends appeared to have less contact with each other than same-race friends, and White friends had more in-school contact than Black friends. It is concluded that similarity and proximity are more important than reciprocity in understanding the nature of early adolescent friendships and that the nature of friendships differs as a function of race and gender. (CMG)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Reciprocity; Similarity Ratings
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 1985); For related document, see UD 024 187.