ERIC Number: ED254471
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1984-Oct-22
Reference Count: 0
The Making of a Fqih: The Transformation of Traditional Islamic Teachers in Modern Times.
Spratt, Jennifer E.; Wagner, Daniel
By looking at changes in the status and role of the fqih or traditional Islamic teacher in Morocco, it is possible to trace the transformation of the entire learning system from an independent, teacher-centered approach to a government-controlled educational system, of which religious education is only a part. In the traditional system, students memorized and recited the Quran at lower levels, and at higher levels studied exegesis, grammar, and law. The teacher's educational background consisted of local level schooling, travel for study-apprenticeships with individual scholars, and usually attendance at formal centers of Islamic study. The goal was acquisition of a quality called "ilm" (knowledge). Pressures for changes in this system began early in the 20th century when Morocco was a French protectorate. In 1968, the Moroccan government merged the Islamic and government schools so that fqihs now teach five- and six-year olds. Higher religious instruction now occurs through specialized secondary schools and universities. The traditional teacher's techniques and status have changed considerably and parents now see the teacher as a countervailing force to rapid social change. (IS)
Descriptors: Anthropology, Comparative Education, Developing Nations, Educational Change, Educational History, Elementary Secondary Education, Ethnography, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Islam, Islamic Culture, Preschool Education, Public Schools, Religious Education, Social Change, Teacher Education, Teacher Role, Teaching Methods
Publication Type: Reports - General
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).; Spencer Foundation, Chicago, IL.; National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.; National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.
Note: Paper from the Project on Human Potential. For other project papers, see SO 016 244-270. Research part of the Morocco Literacy Project.