ERIC Number: ED251276
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1984-Feb
Reference Count: 0
In-Service Education for Special Education Teachers in Rural Areas.
The literature regarding the provision of in-service education is reviewed to: (1) provide brief definitions of rural school districts and in-service education; (2) discuss the importance of in-service education; (3) explore the difficulties associated with in-service education in rural areas, along with possible remedies; and (4) examines various approaches for providing in-service training to special education teachers in rural areas. An overview of the basic principles underlying in-service education is followed by a delineation of 15 assumptions upon which in-service education is based. The theories of planned change and Malcolm Knowles's theory of andragogy are described. The following major difficulties encountered when providing in-service education to special education teachers in rural areas are explored: insufficient funding; lack of program relevance; absence of incentives to participate; scheduling difficulties; distance; insufficient teacher motivation; inadequate follow-up; absence of evaluation; and feelings of threat which may be experienced by participants. Approaches for providing in-service education programs are classified into college and university programs, state and regional programs, school based programs, teacher center programs, teacher exchanges, and consultant programs. Each category is evaluated in terms of the difficulties associated with in-service education and adherence to the components of a proposed in-service model. (NQA)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Knowles (Malcolm S)
Note: Supporting bibliography of 124 references.