ERIC Number: ED249414
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1984-Aug
Reference Count: 0
Researching Dialectical Reasoning: Possibilities and Impossibilities.
Rychlak, Joseph F.
Although traditional learning theories are based on a demonstrative view of cognition, human beings tend to reason both demonstratively and dialectically. To examine the dialectical theory five studies were conducted. In the first study subjects rated words that could be used as personality descriptors for likability and subsequently learned them by paired association. Results showed that subjects learned their liked descriptors-words more readily than their disliked words. Subjects in the the antonym condition learned the opposites of their dislike words more readily than the opposites of their like words. In the second and third studies high school and college students rated nonsense syllables to one prime syllable by way of triassociation. Results showed that oppositionality had great heuristic power and that this facilitative role was in the dialectically framed conceptual abilities of the subjects. In the fourth study subjects learned words associated with personality characteristics, manipulated for oppositional/nonoppositional organizers. Results showed that words associated with oppositional organizers were easier to memorize. In the fifth study subjects rated personality traits for affective preference and gave associaitons to the meanings of each word. Results showed that the impression formed by subjects based on the antonym were significantly different from the prime. These findings suggest that human meanings are not congeries of singular, unidirectional associations. (BL)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Dialectical Reasoning
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (92nd, Toronto, Canada, August 24-28, 1984).