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ERIC Number: ED248952
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1984-Jun-16
Pages: 10
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Fathers and Daughters.
Levant, Ronald F.; And Others
Evidence exists that fathers have a potent influence on the sex-role adoption of their sons and daughters and that fathers tend to reinforce sex-role stereotypes of masculinity in their sons and femininity in their daughters. Crucial events appear to take place at the start of the second year of life. At this time, fathers begin to treat their sons and daughters differently, while mothers continue to treat infants of both sexes similarly. From the time their daughters are 3 years of age, fathers tend to interact in expressive rather than instrumental ways. When fathers do behave instrumentally, their behavior is ineffective and confusing. In later years, the pattern continues, with girls eliciting more affection from their fathers and receiving less encouragement for independent achievements. This pattern has held up to a degree even in a sample of nontraditional fathers who had accepted greater child care roles. Although fathers who were their daughters' primary caregivers made a greater effort than did traditional fathers to foster their daughters' intellectual growth, these fathers' behavior still varied according to the sex of the child and remained consistent with sex-role stereotypes. (RH)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Researchers; Parents
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Primary Caregivers
Note: Paper presented at the Greater Boston Fatherhood Forum (Boston, MA, June 16, 1984).