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ERIC Number: ED247331
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1984
Pages: 11
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
The Black Experience in Medical Education: 1840 to 1980.
James, William
In the 1800s there were few opportunities for blacks who wanted to become physicians. Harvard and Bowdoin began accepting black students in the 1840s, but "whites only" policies existed at most schools until the 1960s. The majority of black doctors were trained in Europe or at one of the black medical colleges established after the Civil War. A number of these existed by the time of the Flexner Report of 1910, but all except Howard and Meharry were criticized by that report for being ineffective and money-wasting. Many were closed. Black doctors continued to graduate from segregated schools, but after the Flexner Report they faced even greater discrimination. Montague Cobb and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People began to protest this segregation in the 1940s. By 1966, every school approved by the Association of American Medical Colleges had begun to admit blacks. Moreover, in 1964, the American Medical Association had declared its opposition to the exclusive policies of many of its local chapters (which ultimately had restricted membership at the national level). By then, major support programs and foundations had been established to aid black medical education. Despite these advances, the proportion of blacks who are practicing physicians has declined constantly since 1930. Only one black out of 3,800 becomes a doctor, as compared to one of 560 whites. Formidable barriers--such as the reverse discrimination concept--continue to obstruct equal medical education and opportunities. (KH)
Publication Type: Reports - General
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: N/A