ERIC Number: ED239176
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-Aug
Reference Count: 0
A Historical Overview of Teacher Expectation Effects.
Cooper, Harris M.
Since the late 1960's, researchers have been concerned with the influence of teacher expectations on student performance. Teacher expectations generally can be categorized into three types: assessments of ability, predictions of progress, and natural discrepancies between teacher estimates and actual student performance. Expectations can have the effect of self-fulfilling prophecy or of sustaining expected performance levels. In a 1978 survey of the literature, 112 studies were found which investigated teacher expectations; 40 percent of those studies found significant support for the existence of teacher expectation effects. These expectations are communicated in the classroom through student and teacher interactions in the form of socioemotional atmospheres, verbal input, verbal output, and feedback. In general, brighter students tend to receive more feedback and teacher interaction time than less bright students, resulting in the likelihood of sustaining expectation effects. According to the Expectation Communication Model (Cooper, 1979), teachers' expectations and the context of an interaction influence teachers' feelings of control over student performance. Teachers generally feel in control over high expectation students and over self-initiated interactions. Current research is focusing on the role of student thoughts in the communication process and the role of teachers' individual differences in expectation communication. (BL)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Teacher Expectations
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (91st, Anaheim, CA, August 26-30, 1983).