ERIC Number: ED233873
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980
Reference Count: 0
Women's Access to Agricultural Extension Services in Botswana.
Bettles, F. M.
Extension services to women in rural Botswana, particularly emphasized since the women's extension program began in 1975, must take into account constraints faced by female farmers, as past development processes have concentrated on male perceptions of concern (the beef industry, modernizing the economy). In Botswana, agriculture has traditionally been the responsibility of women (with men doing the plowing and planting), while men are concerned with the livestock which are wealth/status symbols. Female-headed households, many having inadequate draft animals or labor to do agricultural tasks, are increasing due to lack of income opportunities in rural areas and consequent male out-migration. Since creation of the post of Agricultural Officer/Women's Extension in 1975, efforts have been made to include women in extension services, such as membership on farmers' committees and participation in talks/courses on agricultural topics. Recommendations for the future include expanding the Women's Extension Unit, examining performance of female officers in Agricultural Field Services, making more Agricultural Demonstrators aware of the role women play in rural development, developing projects relevant to women's needs (beekeeping, vegetable gardening, poultry keeping, rabbit keeping, sorghum milling), evaluating/developing women's courses at the Rural Training Center, and increasing liaison with other ministries, non-governmental agencies, and organizations. (MH)
Descriptors: Agricultural Production, Delivery Systems, Developing Nations, Economic Change, Extension Agents, Extension Education, Farm Labor, Farmers, Females, Foreign Countries, Futures (of Society), Heads of Households, Males, Program Evaluation, Rural Development, Rural Economics, Rural Extension, Rural to Urban Migration, Sex Role, Sex Stereotypes
Publication Type: Reports - General
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone (Botswana).
Note: Prepared for Ford Foundation Workshop on Women in Agricultural Production in Eastern and Southern Africa (Nairobi, Kenya, April 9-11, 1980).