PDF pending restoration
ERIC Number: ED233286
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-Mar
Reference Count: 0
Relational and Item-Specific Encoding: Effects of Orienting Task, Materials, and Type of Test on Prose Memory.
Morton, Kelly R.; Hall, Donald M.
The type of cognitive processing most beneficial to memory may depend on the structure of the material and the type of retrieval test required. Relational encoding organizes words by their relationships, while item-specific encoding processes words on an individual basis. To obtain information on these cognitive processes as they relate to the use of textbook materials and recall, as shown by essay and multiple choice tests, 200 college students were presented with a section from a genetics textbook structured in one of four ways: keywords in italics; headings showing the organization of the material; both keywords in italics and headings; and neither italics or headings. The students were randomly assigned to process one of the different sets of material using one of six processing tasks: (1) a single relational task; (2) a tree diagram and outline, i.e., a combination of two relational tasks; (3) (4) individual item tasks, i.e., draw or define; (5) a combination of two individual item tasks, i.e., draw and define; and (6) diagram and define, a combination of relational and individual item tasks. Analyses of multiple choice test data showed significantly better performance for the define (keywords) condition. All other effects were nonsignificant. A second study examined the relationship between tree diagramming and defining, the relational and individual-item tasks, and the four materials conditions on an essay test. Data analysis indicated significantly better performance for the tree diagram condition than for the define keywords condition. (MCF)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association (29th, Atlanta, GA, March 23-26, 1983).