ERIC Number: ED232789
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-Aug
Reference Count: 0
Influence of Rewards and Goals on Children's Self-Efficacy and Skills.
Schunk, Dale H.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two contextual influences (performance-contingent rewards and proximal goals) on children's task motivation, self-efficacy, and skillful performance after division skill-development training. The sample included 44 children, ranging in age from approximately 9 to 11 years, who were identified by their teachers as being low in ability to solve division problems. After measures were taken of children's perceptions of self-efficacy for correctly solving division problems and following the administration of a division-skill pretest, children were assigned to one of four treatment groups: rewards only, goals only, rewards plus goals, and training control. Children received two 45-minute training sessions over consecutive school days; during sessions, an adult proctor gave treatment instructions appropriate to the children's experimental condition, and children solved problems alone. It was predicted that children in the condition involving rewards plus goals would demonstrate the highest levels of self-efficacy and skillful performance. Results indicated that offering children performance-contingent rewards or suggesting proximal goals exerted motivational effects on problem solving and that combining performance-contingent rewards with proximal goals led to superior levels of self-efficacy and skillful performance. Results thus supported the idea that self-efficacy bears an important relationship to subsequent achievement. (RH)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Proximal Goal; Self Efficacy
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (Anaheim, CA, August 26-30, 1983).