ERIC Number: ED229876
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-Apr
Reference Count: 0
The Effects of Nonpromotion on Elementary and Junior High School Pupils: A Meta-Analysis.
Holmes, C. Thomas; Matthews, Kenneth M.
Because studies have variously analyzed the effects of nonpromotion on elementary and junior high school students--with some studies selecting control groups from within the same school and others without, some from age-peers and others from grade-peers--this meta-analysis mathematically integrates the research findings to coordinate their results. Using 44 studies that met the topic criteria, the authors measured the "effect sizes" in grand means. When each effect size was treated equally, the grand mean effect size was -.37, indicating that promoted children scored 0.37 standard deviation units higher than retained children on the outcome measures. When effect sizes within each study were averaged, the grand mean was -.34. In studies in which promoted and nonpromoted students had been compared, the grand mean was -.38. It is noted that the high degree of consistency lends credibility to the validity of the findings. In addition to the grand means, effect sizes were calculated on some dependent variable measures, including academic achievement, personal adjustment, attitude, behavior, and attendance. The cumulative research shows that the potential for negative effects consistently outweighs positive outcomes. The analysis concludes with an extensive list of references. (JW)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Meta Analysis
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 11-15, 1983).