ERIC Number: ED229795
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-Mar
Reference Count: 0
Schooling and the Composing Process.
Marshall, James D.
To examine how the school environment shapes the composing process, a series of interviews were conducted over 16 months with a sample of students from an academically oriented high school. After an initial background interview, each student met biweekly with one member of the research staff and discussed the writing he or she had done since the last interview. The analysis of writing function distinguished among three general uses: imaginative writing, personal writing, and informational writing. Audience analysis distinguished among self, teacher as part of an instructional dialogue, teacher as examiner, and wider audience. Students' reports on their writing instruction revealed few available options when they wrote for school. They shaped their messages within a narrow range of purposes and within rather severe formal constraints. The students' sense of audience profoundly affected their attitudes, so that with most of their work done for the teacher as examiner, they were less likely to engage themselves fully in the task. In general the results suggest that the nature of the writing students are asked to produce, the instructions they are given, and the responses they receive have a dramatic impact on the written product. (HOD)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Audience Awareness
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (34th, Detroit, MI, March 17-19, 1983).